Thursday, June 4, 2020

The Role of Existentialism in Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex - Literature Essay Samples

While Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex is known primarily as a feminist text, it is Jean-Paul Sartre’s existentialist philosophy that influenced Beauvoir’s writings. As existentialists, these philosophers argue that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject and not the thinking subject alone. Sartre argues that philosophical thinking starts with the acting, feeling, living human individual. For an existentialist, the starting point of a being is when one senses disorientation or dread when looking at the world. For existentialists, it is the individual and not society that determines and is responsible for the meaning of their own life. Beauvoir takes existentialist philosophy and transforms it into a discussion on feminism, racism, motherhood and many other topics. In this essay, I will show how Jean-Paul Sartre’s philosophy influenced Simone de Beauvoir’s theories on feminism. It is through Sartre’s use of the character, Inez, in â€Å"No Exit† that show how existentialist philosophy’s role is played in the discussion of Hell. It is Sartre’s thoughts that influence Beauvoir’s thoughts on topics in this life rather than in the afterlife. In Margaret A. Simons’ book, Beauvoir and The Second Sex: Feminism, Race, and the Origins of Existentialism, the ties between Beauvoir and existentialism are laid out and offer a good understanding and interpretation of The Second Sex and its role as a feminist and existentialist text. When reading The Second Sex, one can discern that the text is simply an expression of Sartrean existentialism in the form of the question of women, displaying Beauvoir as a philosopher first, and secondly as a feminist as she transforms Sartre’s philosophy and creates her own. While Beauvoir plays a major role in Sartrean existentialism, it is important to look at Jean-Paul Sartre first. In his play, â€Å"No Exit,† Sartre’s philosophy is displayed well through the use of the character, Inez. Sartre’s philosophical views are embedded in his characters as they play an integral part in portraying an existentialist view in the play. Sartre uses the characters’ personal attributes to demonstrate existentialist thought. Each of the three characters display characteristics of sexual perversion and interaction with the consciousness. Sartre explores many existentialist themes, most noticeably, â€Å"No Exit† focuses on the ideas of consciousness and freedom. While the play’s setting is Hell, the characters are taken into a room with no mirrors, no windows, only three sofas, a paper knife and a mantel piece leaving the characters exposed, raw, and bare to the reader. It is Inez that brings forth the notion of consciousness to the play. Inez’s first thought about Garcin provides a great example of the distinction between knowing something and being conscious of something, Sartre writes, â€Å"Garcin: I beg your pardon. Who do you suppose I am? Inez: You? Why, the torturer, of course† (8). Without the knowledge that it is in fact Garcin and later, Estelle, that is her torturers, Inez’s misconception is actually hitting at the truth. Inez offers many existentialist thoughts on consciousness. Sartre believes that consciousness is painful and he argues that humans spend much of their time with unreflected consciousness. Inez expresses this when she says, â€Å"Im always conscious of myself – in my mind. Painfully conscious† (19). For Sartre, an existentialist must know that existence precedes essence meaning that an individual must act as an individual. Inez realizes this in Hell when she says, â€Å"So Im done with the earth, it seems. No more alibis for me! I feel so empty, desiccated – really dead at last. All of mes here, in this room† (29). In this quotation it is seen that Inez realizes that it is she who determines her own fate. She is solely responsible for ending up in Hell. This is what being an existentialist means. An existentialist has the freedom to determine their own fate and to also take responsibility for their decisions. So it is seen in Jean-Paul Sartre’s â€Å"No Exit† what it means to be an existentialist. It is this groundwork that provided Simone de Beauvoir with the ability to expand and transform existentialist thought in The Second Sex. In Beauvoir’s The Second Sex, she takes Sartre’s existentialist philosophy and transforms it into her own. Like Sartre, Beauvoir puts a lot of thought into the human struggle for freedom. The Second Sex lays out the groundwork for the second wave of feminism. The second wave is concerned with sexuality, family, and reproductive rights, among other things. This relates to existentialism in the way that existentialists worry about achieving freedom, or the ability to choose for themselves in good faith. In Margaret A. Simons’ Beauvoir and The Second Sex : Feminism, Race, and the Origins of Existentialism, the first line of the second chapter reads: the question of the influence that Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre had on one another’s work during the fifty years of writers analyzing their relationship has seldom been posed in a rigorous fashion†¦feminist philosophers who consider The Second Sex (1949) to be merely an application of Sartre’s perspective are similarly reminded of Beauvoir’s philosophic differences from Sartres when their analyses confront the sexism and limitations of Sartre’s understanding of woman’s situation†¦(Simons 41) Simons is saying that people who read Beauvoir without a feminist lense, see Beauvoir as merely a reiteration of Sartrean existentialism. For Simons, one must recognize Beauvoir as a philosopher along with being a feminist. A man who is limited to the knowledge of being a man is more likely to see Beauvoir as an imitator of Sartre. Beauvoir writes, â€Å"man is defined as a human being and woman as a female – whenever she behaves as a human being she is said to imitate the male† (Beauvoir). This again provides an existentialist reading of the text, as the men are taking on the role of telling the woman how she should and should not be; this gives the woman the sense that she is not in control of who she is. This shows that if someone is taught her entire life that to be a woman, she has to act or look a specific way, be submissive, and work only certain jobs, it is going to affect her sense of freedom and authenticity. Beauvoir writes on the domineering role men take wh en it comes to women, â€Å"the whole of feminine history has been man-made. Just as in America there is no Negro problem, but rather a white problem; just as anti-Semitism is not a Jewish problem, it is our problem; so the woman problem has always been a man problem† (Beauvoir). She is saying that men are the people with the problem when it comes to women’s issues. For Beauvoir, men have created the problems that women face. This makes life hard for a woman that identifies as existentialist. So if this is the case, for Beauvoir, being known as the woman who followed her husband’s thoughts would be incredibly difficult. While many feminist writers before Beauvoir took the form of literature, Beauvoir was among the first to view feminism in a philosophical manner. It is this form that Beauvoir takes that distinguishes her from her contemporaries, including Sartre. Beauvoir not only examines existentialist theory but takes it and applies it to the question of women. Simons writes, â€Å"an obvious question for a feminist philosopher is whether the same process has been at work in philosophy†¦The Second Sex reveals that is has† (Simons 101). Simons is saying that Beauvoir is creating a new way to discuss feminism that must be read and understood differently than a work of literature. Beauvoir not only contributes to feminist thought but adds on to Sartrean philosophy in a way that Sartre, as a man, never could. Simons writes, â€Å"The Second Sex is important not only for its contribution to feminist philosophy, but for its more general contribution to existential moral and social philosop hy and to our understanding of the social construction of knowledge† (Simons 101). Simons continually emphasizes Beauvoir’s influence on the wider spectrum and not feminism alone. Simons successfully displays that Beauvoir is in her own right, a pioneer of the existentialist movement. Simons later shares on page 101 that for Beauvoir, The Second Sex is the combination of existentialism and feminism. Beauvoir shares that the self needs someone acting â€Å"the other† in order to define itself as a subject. By saying this she says it is necessary for the constitution of the self as a self. This is where the two come together. As the woman acts as â€Å"the other,† this provides the reader with the perfect example for understanding Beauvoir’s view on otherness and existentialist thought on how the otherness affects everyone. Simons perfectly describes Beauvoir’s position on feminism. Beauvoir is writing as a philosopher. She is examining the ent ire world of existentialism and human existence and takes these thoughts and turns them into a conversation on feminism. This was on of the first philosophical texts written about the female. While her views remain true to Sartrean philosophy, she expands it into a conversation that has never been done before, that of the woman. Through understanding Jean-Paul Sartre’s philosophy, understanding Simone de Beauvoir’s philosophical writings, and being able to view the differences, one can conclude that not only is Beauvoir’s writing her own but it takes the influence of Sartre’s thought and transforms it into a new while still maintaining the foundations of Sartre’s philosophical thought. This distinction is important to understand because it provides Beauvoir with not only the mind of a woman writing on feminism but the mind of a philosopher writing on the thoughts of all human beings. Feminism through the philosophical view of existentialism provides a unique understanding of the problem. This is the understanding that the individual woman should be able to decide her own fate. Beauvoir expresses her belief that it is men that have created the problem for women and it is exactly through her discussion on individual freedom that expresses this. Reading The Second Sex as an ex istentialist text provides the reader with an even richer understanding of Beauvoir’s thoughts.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effects Of Healthy And Unhealthy Relationships

Through this reflection I will discuss the impact of both healthy and unhealthy relationships have had upon my personal life. Through the examples of my father and my youth pastor Steve I will explore how my image of God as a father has grown and developed and how healthy and unhealthy relationships have changed that. I will begin by reflecting on my unhealthy relationship with my father and the negative impact that has had on my image of God. Secondly I will reflect on my healthy relationship with Steve and the positive impact that has had on my image of God. Finally, I will reflect on how this has impacted my personal and spiritual growth as well as how I approach relationships. Session One of Spiritual Formation 2 states that Relationships provide meaning and purpose to our existence. They can also contribute positively to an individual’s sense of security, self-esteem and well-being. If relationships can contribute positively to an individual s sense of security, self-esteem and well-being then they can also contribute to those things in a negative way. During my childhood my father was constantly absent due to work and because of that I always felt like he didn t care about my passions and never felt supported by him. As a younger male I wanted a significant male in my life not only to love me unconditionally but also to like me and want to be around me. Someone who would teach me secret men s business , would tell me they are proud of me and with whom I couldShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Family Systems On Healthy Development1512 Words   |  7 PagesThe Affects of Family Systems on Healthy Development Relationship between Family Systems and Development Family systems are essential to the healthy development of a child. Family systems and development go hand in hand. Children who come from a healthy family system are more likely to have a healthy development. Children who come from an unhealthy family system are more likely to have an unhealthy development. According to David V. Papero (2014), â€Å"Murray Bowen developed a family systems theoryRead MoreFamily Systems Essays1286 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Family Systems and Healthy Development Liberty University Family Systems and Healthy Development In today’s world, families are dynamic and interdependent systems. The developmental processes of the children in the family are deeply affected by how the family system operates. However, a family’s structure does not determine whether it is a healthy family system or not. Today, families consist of single parents, stepparents, divorced parents, remarried parents, grandparentsRead MoreFamily System And Healthy Development810 Words   |  4 PagesFamily System and Healthy Development According to Simons et al. (2004), â€Å"the family is considered to be the most significant social system in which all individual function† (p. 96). The family consists of many synergistic and intricate parts, creating a unified working system. Within the family system, each individual plays an important role in its healthy or unhealthy development, needs, desire, and specific family type, and overall success. â€Å"From whom the whole body, joined and held togetherRead MoreOrganizational Culture Assesment1717 Words   |  7 PagesAssessment Life is stressful and the value of the healthy organization is measured by the quality of the work-life balance of the employees. Even the best-managed organizations have stressors occurring on the regular and the irregular periods. Those regular stressors, such as quarterly reports or financial tides are expected. The unplanned and often unsuspected stressors occur within the organization. These unplanned stressors will create chaos and an unhealthy organization. Lindberg and Vingà ¥rd (2012)Read MoreEffects Of Technology On Our Lives1679 Words   |  7 Pageseight percent of waking time on technology. Overuse of any thing is unhealthy, especially overuse with so many adverse effects. Technology has three main categories of unhealthy effects. Physical, Mental/Emotional, and Social/Environmental. Because of its wide range of unhealthy effects on several aspects of life its use should be limited. Technology has unhealthy effects on many aspects of life. Addressing the physical effects of technology, the first to be addressed is sleeping habits. When oneRead MoreCorrelations and Confounding Variables629 Words   |  3 Pagesmeasurements on the various variables that show a relationship among the variables (Correlations, 2013). They determine an association between variables and how variables are associated with each other. Confounding variables are third party variables that can show relationships among the dependent and independent variables without presenting a viable relationship with the individual study (Spunt, 2011). The confounding variables can show relationships that are not necessarily true and do not prove changesRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie From Osage County 1447 Words   |  6 Pagespills she is taking, caused her to have an acid-tongue, and inevitable everyone’s deepest darkest secrets come out causing the whole family to fall apart. The unhealthy trait Beverly possessed was drinking. He drank away his problems or so he thought. Ultimately, his drinking lead to his death. Violet, on the other hand, had multiple unhealthy traits that surfaced throughout the entire movie. Violet, who was suffering from mouth cancer, turned to drugs to get through all of her heartache and pain.Read MoreEffects Of Socioeconomic Status On The Health Development Of Adolescents1742 Words   |  7 PagesDetails of the Proposed Study This will be an academic study of the effects of socioeconomic status on the health development of adolescents. This research is designed to contribute to the existing literature by focusing on the development of youths as a result of their social circumstances. Although it can be applied to political discussion regarding health policies, the purpose of this research is to enhance the existing knowledge on how social factors can be determinants of health. The researchRead MoreSelf Efficacy, Self Esteem, And Social Wellness Essay1028 Words   |  5 PagesSuicide, the reason what teens use to get away from life, caused by depression and other mental health problems. Unhealthy minds and healthy minds will tell you how unclear thoughts affects someone. This brings down the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and self-confidence. There are three steps to prevent suicide, which might decrease the risk of suicide from happening. This might give you a clear idea to help prevent a friend, family m ember, or anyone from committing suicide. Self-Efficacy Many ofRead MoreFast Plants Lab Report1148 Words   |  5 PagesFast food or Bastard food? Figure 1: . In 2010 A cartoon by Piraro about how fast food effect pigeons which representing the people who addicted on fast food. In the 21 century, people are suffering from all kinds of diseases and over 85% of them are caused by, an unhealthy, diet. In the United States, 25% of Americans eat fast food every day, which can cause heart disease, hypertension and diabetes, starting with overweight. McDonalds, Taco Bell, Wendy’s, and Burger King are very popular

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Organization Structure of the Nestle-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Organization Structure of the Nestle Company. Answer: Introduction: Nestle Australia is a great supplier of food and drink products. It consist a wide range of dairy milk products, Chocolates, Coffees and also many flavors of noodles. Instead of this it gives variety of hot and cold drinks, Ice cream and also a wide of confectionary and bakery items. Also to many cafes, hotels and clubs the catering services are provided by Nestle. Nestle brand include Nescafe, kit- Kat, Nestea and crunch. It also gives pet food such as Purina. There is joint venture a company has launched in more than 80 countries. In starting the Henri nestles developed milk for the babies who are not able drink and to feed from their mothers, after five years the product was sold around the world as a food for old people and for babies (Larson Gobeli, 2008).The Australian market became the second largest market for nestle in 1906 and served many of the sales agent and retailers. When the new product named as MILO was introduced in 1934 that was the biggest achievement in Australi an market. Now the product is available in more than 30 countries with the very high sale of more than half billion Australian dollar. The nestle head office is in Sydney which has became the head -quarter for Oceania region which consist of Australia, New Zealand. It is a renowned company of food and drinks. It also deals with nutrition, health and wellness organization in countries (Nestle, 2013). Findings: Organizational structure tells and discuss about task allocation, Coordination and supervision to achieve or to attain organizational aims. By this the individual can access and see their organization and its environment. Nestle organizational chart tells about the relations between people within an organization. There are various types of organizational charts which include hierarchical, Matrix and Flat. The organization is prepared according to the structure of matrix (Sinha, 2009). The company gives permission to subordinate branches for independence. The decisions are made on the headquarter level and the day to day operations are performed and managed by the subordinates to complete it (Colquitt, Lepine Wesson, 2011). Nestle has achieved its expansion from the small village operation to worlds best leading food company. It has adjusted itself in the environment without losing the values which are essential for long term survival. Matrix is a structure in which reporting relatio nships are fixed up as a grid or matrix instead of traditional hierarchy. It can manage more than one reporting line but used as managing the cross functional (Mee, 2014). Nestle company follows the formal structure in the organization. The management of nestle is divided into 3 types top level management, Middle level management and low level management. In top level of management: In this it consists of board of directors, chief executive director, Chief technology officer, Chief marketing officer, and Chief operation officer. This level of management is the final stage of authority. More time is consumed in coordinating and planning functions. The top management in nestle company gives broad policies of enterprise and gives the objective. They also have a strong accountability, confidence and are risk bearer. The direction and guidance is also given by them to the subordinates (Wooldridge Floyd, 2013).The activities are coordinated and controlled by these departments. The directors are also responsible towards the stockholders for the performance. This level of management also maintains a link or a contact with the outside world for the expansion of the business. The budgets and schedule are maintained and prepared by this level of management. The high amount of stress is involved in their work but they motivate other to perform their task in effective and e fficient manner. They create the plans for the development without analyzing the core processes of the company (Hofstede, 2011). Middle level management: The branch managers and departmental managers of nestle are involved in this level. More time is consumed on directional and organizational functions. The managers of this level have the responsibility to complete and make plans for the units of the organization. Managers are also involved in giving training to the lower level management. They give directions to the subordinates to implement the plans. Middle level managers provide motivation to their subordinate who enhances their skills and develop confidence in them. The managers also participate in training and employment of lower level management. Examples of this level can be general managers, department managers (Cowherd Levine, 2012). Low level management: This level is supervisory level of management. Nestle involves supervisors and offices in this level. The responsibility of these officers is they assign the task to different workers. They give guidance to workers in day to day activities. Complaints of the workers are solved by them and also they maintain good relations with everyone. They focus mainly on completing the task on time and try to do the task as instructed by the middle level management. The managers keep check on the quality and quantity of production. They initiate the plans which are given by the middle level management team. Examples can be section leads, foremen (Ardichvili Kuchinke, 2002). Conclusion: Nestle believes that size of the company matters less as compared to behavior and also trust of the consumers is earned in long period of time by fulfilling their promises on time. The behavior can be summarized by the lines which are: Good food, Good life. This line gives a summary of the business aspiration. The Nestle model is achieving its objectives today and ensuring to achieve success in future. The organization structure plays an important role in the organization. Proper management can only take place when there is proper communication and relations between the employees. The matrix plays a major role in the organization. The organization is managed by the matrix organizational structure. Nestle focuses on creating and setting strategies in the market which enhances the level of performance of the company (Simons, 2008). Recommendations: The organization structure of the company should have a flexible communication. Poor communication causes the root of various problems. So it should be there in the organization so that each and every employee can perform effectively and efficiently and also by this the communication barriers do not take place in the organization. There should be proper direction of control by every level of management because by this it motivates employees as well as give efficient results and helps in achieving the objective of the company. Also, Nestle should update the technology and also there should be full utilization of the resources and also of manual operators which will give enhancement of efficiency and increases the dependency of supply chain systems. Nestle can also use manual and automation system by which service and sales can be managed effectively and efficiently. It can also purchase the inventories from other places from other region instead of finding many suppliers. Company shou ld mainly focus on the expanding the business or the company and also customer satisfaction is a main element which should be considered by the company. It helps in expansion of the business and creating good environment in the organization for both the employees and the customer. Nestle should make the plans and procedures in such a way that organizational objectives can be achieved easily. Reference List: Nestle, M. (2013).Food politics: How the food industry influences nutrition and health(Vol. 3). Univ of California Press. Colquitt, J., Lepine, J. A., Wesson, M. J. (2011).Organizational behavior: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace. McGraw-Hill Irwin. Cowherd, D. M., Levine, D. I. (2012 ). Product quality and pay equity between lower-level employees and top management: An investigation of distributive justice theory.Administrative Science Quarterly, 302-320. Wooldridge, B., Floyd, S. W. (2013). The strategy process, middle management involvement, and organizational performance.Strategic management journal,11(3), 231-241. Hofstede, G. (2011). Cultural dimensions in management and planning.Asia Pacific journal of management,1(2), 81-99. Mee, J. F. (2014). Matrix organization.Business Horizons,7(2), 70-72. Ardichvili, A., Kuchinke, K. P. (2002). Leadership styles and cultural values among managers and subordinates: a comparative study of four countries of the former Soviet Union, Germany, and the US.Human Resource Development International,5(1), 99-117. Larson, E. W., Gobeli, D. H. (2008). Significance of project management structure on development success.IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management,36(2), 119-125. Sinha, J. B. (2009).Culture and organizational behaviour. SAGE Publications India. Simons, R. (2008). Strategic orientation and top management attention to control systems.Strategic management journal,12(1), 49-62.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Oedipus Rex And Oedipus At Colonus Essays - Literature, Vocal Music

Oedipus Rex And Oedipus At Colonus Sophocles wrote both " Oedipus the King, " also known as " Oedipus Rex," and "Oedipus at Colonus. " Although " Oedipus at Colonus " is looked at to be a continuation of " Oedipus the King, " the two do differ when dealing with the character himself, Oedipus. The question though being is, did Oedipus acheive redemption by the end of the play? In " Oedipus the King, " Oedipus had fallen by the end of the play. His life had made a complete 360 after the truth was revealed about the murder of the King and his true father. However, in the continuation of the play, in " Oedipus at Colonus, " Oedipus begins to make a turn for the better. It was quoted that in the second play " the central theme is the transformation of Oedipus into a hero. In " Oedipus at Colonus, " Oedipus " struggled to acheive death and transformation in accordance with his oracle. " This was seen for the most part in the middle of the play. Sophocles made his second edition of this play very dramatic. The play begins in misery. This misery helped teach Oedipus resignation....." asking little, receiving less than little, and content with that. "Oedpus, a suppliant, is in need of a savior, of which that being Theseus, to help save him from the pursued by his enemy ( Creon ). However, the " central paradox of this play is that the suppliant is destined to be the savior. " This was seen most clearly when dealing with the conflicts that took place within this play. There was a plea scene in which Oedipus ( suppliant ) commends himself to Theseus ( his savior ); an agon between Oedipus and Creon ( enemy ) ending in violence and an agon between Creon and Theseus, ending in Creon's expulsion and a battle sequence, ending in the salvation of Oedipus. All the misery and helplessness that typify a suppliant's condition are present in the character Oedipus, but as the drama begins to unfold slowly, it quickly becomes apparent that he will not be confined to just that role. Oedipus' true redemption is seen however when dealing with his stronger faith in his religion seen in the second play. Oedipus had heard that the land on which he trespassed upon was sacred to the " all-seeing Eumenides. " So, in hearing this to be true, Oedipus stands there calmly with the wishes that the goddesses receive him as their suppliant and he states " for never would I go away from this refuge. " Oedipus proves to others that he is no longer the helpless beggar that was seen in the beginning of " Oedipus at Colonus. " When stranger asked him " and what help can there be from a blind man?, " Oedipus replied, " what I say will be full of sight. " With this response, the stranger, along with many others, were quite impressed. After the stranger left, Oedipus once again began to pray to the Eumenides. He made a promise to them that his life would end at the seat of the Dread Goddesses, bringing benefits to those who received him and ruin to those from whom drove him to exile. By the end of the play, Oedipus disappears mysteriously, without pain and suffering. Most agree that this was the best way for life to end. It was quite obvious that Oedipus did reach redemption in " Oedipus at Colonus. " However, it was stated that " Sophocles does not bring Oedipus to Colonus to die and be venerated as a hero, but to become a hero before our eyes. "

Saturday, March 14, 2020

buy custom Search Engine Technology essay

buy custom Search Engine Technology essay Search engines are tools that are widely used to search information on the World Wide Web. The World Wide Web is the most single important source of information in the 21st century, and users search for such information through the use of search engines. Search engines are regarded as the best search tools that can query the World Wide Web for pertinent information, which are then presented to users as search results (Babin Weiss, 2009). Search engine technology is at the kernel of web search as it allows search engines to locate information in the internet, index them and serve them to users who query them. This paper will address the origin of the search engine technology; evaluate its benefits and disadvantages, not to mention highlighting on various competitors using this technology. Origins of search engine technology Today, search engine technology, has gained significant milestones in the technology arena because of some historical development in technology. The search engine technology has evolved to a position where it has transformed how information in retrieved in the internet. The first search engine is believed to be the information retrieval systems that were used by the International Business Machines back in the 1950s. Luhn was in charge of developing this technology while he was working with IBM. Search techniques were later improved in the 1970s by refining them further. The concepts and technological processes used by the IBM have since been used as the background for search engine technology. The advances that had been made in the search systems were the background for the search engine technology. With the birth of the World Wide Web, the stage was set for the search engine technology that would later be used to power search engines such as Google (Gay, Charlesworth Esen, 2007). In 1990, the HTTP programming language was developed and it led to the development of a small program called Archie. This program was written for the purpose of retrieving information from the internet. Whereas Archie was limited in its functions, it was able to provide basic search for the internet users at that time. The success of archie sparked immense interest in the search technology with new search programs being developed. Wandex a Web search software called was built to capture uniform resource locators in the World Wide Web and index them in a database. This program was followed by a robot called WebCrawler, which then became a search engine that would be the first to enter the search market. This background thus provided a launching pad for the success of various search engine products that improved on the initial search engine technology that were already in place. How search engine technology works Before looking at how search engines work, it is essentil to mention what search engine technologies do. Search engine technology allows users to search information over the World Wide Web. The search engine technology searches the information on the internet and archives them in order to serve them when users request for them (Levene, 2010). Because of what they do, search engines have built indexes of information that are found on the World Wide Web. The role of the search engine is accomplished as a result of how search engine technology works. According to Babin and Weiss (2009), search engine technology relies on robots that crawl on the World Wide Web in search of information. With the World Wide Web made of websites that are on the increase, robots continue to collect and index information into databases. These indexes are often updated and used to provide users with information according to the keywords that are used during the search. The search engines use the search engine technology to collect the address of information in the internet by analyzing their title and their uniform resource locator. Other information such as Meta data are also analyzed to determine what is contained in the web pages, which are then indexed in a database. When a user makes a search using a preferred search engine, the keywords used in the search are compared to what has been indexed in the database. Relevant information is then served to the users. All search engines do no use robots or crawlers. Some search engines use indexes that are entered by human, but it still works like the rest of the search engines. By serving a web page to a user, search engines have changed made location of information be easy on the World Wide Web. Benefits and disadvantages of search engine technology The search engine technology has made use of search engines possible. Nonetheless, the use of search engines, which are powered by search engine technology, has a mix of advantage and disadvantages. There are several advantages of search engine technology that have popularized their use as tools for locating information on the World Wide Web. These advantages are: a) Search engine technology provides an efficient way of indexing information on the World Wide Web. With the World Wide Web having a vast amount of information, the use of search engine technology provides an effective way of organizing information. Because of this advantage, it is possible to represent the vast information available on the World Wide Web. b) Search engine technology allows information to be described with precision. When locating the information on the World Wide Web, search engine technology provides users with means to describe information in keywords that helps in locating information that are rrelevant to the users. c) Search engine technology allows the World Wide Web to be organized more effectively that it appears. With search engines that use the search engine technologies, it has been possible to organize the World Wide Web into a structure that can allow information to be located when need arise. Despite the advantages of search engine technology, there as several disadvantages that are associated with this technology. These disadvantages are: a) The search engine technology can produce endless list of information that have little relevance to the users. For instance, searching for some keywords can yield thousands of web results that are not relevant all. b) The use of search engines can be discouraging for first-time users. This is because users have to learn how to generate effective search results when using these tools. Being that some users find this process tedious, some people may feel that this technology is cumbersome. Major competitors in the marketplace Despite the challenges of developing search engine technologies, there are many technology firms that have entered the market with novel search engines. These firms are increasingly developing cutting edge solution that provides many corporate firms, organization and individuals with search solutions. In the search engine arena, there are many competitors such as Google, Yahoo, Bing, All the Web, and AltaVista just to name a few. Google is considered the most used search engine given its focus on relevant results. Bing is owned by Microsoft and is touted to have a large search share after Google and Bing (McCormick, 2010). These competitors have strived to create novel solutions that are aimed at edging out their competitors. For instance, Google has been praised for using the least approach to searching of data and presenting the search results in a relevant way. AltaVista has also adopted this approach. Apart from Google, Yahoo is one of the popular search engine technologies available today. Since its establishment, Yahoo has grown into a search engine that boast of one of the largest search index in place. A few years ago, Microsoft Corporation expressed interest in buying Yahoo, but it offered a lower bid (McCormick, 2010). Nonetheless, Yahoo has continued to be a preference for many people because of its variety. When Microsoft failed to acquire Yahoo, the firm decided to engineer a new search engineBing. The unveiling of Bing took the search technology to a new level as Google and Yahoo vowed to enhance their service better. The presence of these competitors has made the search technology continue to growing into new heights. Buy custom Search Engine Technology essay

Thursday, February 27, 2020


ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT - Essay Example ......................... 5.0 Distribution/channel strategy................................................................................ 6.0 Promotional strategy............................................................................................. 7.0 Pricing strategy...................................................................................................... References EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Marks and Spencer is not doing an appropriate job of gaining target market interest in the brand and continues to cater to the older demographic. The company has built a rather old-fashioned and stuffy brand that caters to wealthy High Street consumers in the over-55 age bracket. This prevents the business from building a more contemporary brand personality that would attract younger and trendier fashion consumers. To better position the company, the business needs to utilise psychographics rather than demographic segmentation and focus less on quality and more on price and fashion -forwardness. Improvements to fashion procurement, utilisation of the Internet for online purchases, social media for promotion, and lifestyle-related advertisement will improve the brand competitiveness in this highly saturated and dynamic competitive environment. Marketing analysis: Marks and Spencer 1.0 Current market segments Marks and Spencer continues to attempt to attract younger consumer segments through the introduction of more contemporary fashion merchandise with edgy and trendy designs. The business, in an effort to appeal to the twenty something markets, recruited models Lily Cole and Lizzie Jagger to serve as celebrity endorsers that would be aspirational to the youth, female markets (Wood and Finch 2009). However, this strategy failed to rouse interest in the M&S brand and clothing sales to the over-55 female segment rose by 10 percent (Wood and Finch 2009). The problem at Marks and Spencer is that the business continues to segment based on demographics. As a high str eet fashion business, the business maintains a premium pricing model on the majority of its fashion merchandise, thus making clothing more affordable to the older demographic. Premium fashion products are segmented just below luxury brands and therefore usually carry a higher price tag (Hameide 2011). The average age of the business’ customers are between 35 and 54 who maintain the high level of financial resources necessary to afford a high price (Ayub 2010). The brand has been defined according to the demographic characteristics and purchasing behaviours of existing consumers, affluent middle-aged women living in wealthy regions who are the major revenue producers for the company. The business, in an effort to attract desirable target markets, recruited the 1970s model Twiggy to promote a new clothing line launch. This strategy did not appeal to the younger consumer market segments and seemed to reinforce a lifestyle connection with the aging consumer target market. Joanna Lumley, from the Absolutely Fabulous craze, was also recruited to appear in and perform voiceovers for advertisements, yet another older celebrity figure which continued to appeal to the existing, greying market (Chislett 2009). Hence, by focusing on demographic segmentation in order to identify target consumers, Marks and Spencer is limiting its ability to boost revenue production by not utilising other segmentation strategies. The company continues to utilise strategic marketing strategies that are more relevant to the lifestyles and income demographics of older

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Children's Literature - instruction through delight Essay

Children's Literature - instruction through delight - Essay Example And hope that they’d tell their parents†¦which is what happened† (In Beckett, 2008:118). Interestingly, in the UK, Northern Lights was marketed for children however it was marketed for both adult and child markets in the US. It was only when the book received outstanding reviews in the US that it attracted adult readership in the UK. As a result â€Å"many critics feel that Pullman’s work can lay better claim to the crossover label because it is much more sophisticated, complex and multi-layered† (Beckett, 2008:117). Moreover, in considering the crossover phenomenon, a British journalist in 1999 commented that â€Å"the real barrier to overcome is not one of the possibilities of the genre but the judges reluctance to value something that could also be valued by a child, believing that if a child could like it, it must be childish for an adult to like it† (In Beckett: 2008:118). To this end, Pullman’s books clearly challenged orthodox attitudes towards children and adult fiction and further forced the literary establishment to acknowledge that â€Å"books published for children are literary works worthy of attention of adults† (In Beckett, 2008:119). However, in turn, this changing shape of children’s literature has fuelled academic debate as to whether Pullman’s dystopian work can correctly be viewed as a children’s book as it confounds the archetypal format of children’s literature that focus on fairytales, utopian ideals and happy endings (Silvey, 2002: 341). Appurtenant to this debate is the contention as to whether the growing phenomenon of such crossover fiction is anti-educational as a result of the instruction through delight paradigm. The focus of this paper is to critically evaluate this debate with contextual reference to Pullman’s â€Å"Northern Lights†, which is the first book in the Dark Materials Trilogy. It is